EXERCISE 2:2

This exercise will give you more experience with the darkroom enlarger.  Learn how to enlarge images from your negatives and correct your tonal range for more contrast.  Consider how different photographers use contrast in relationship to their images.

STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES

  • Know properties of variable contrast photo paper
  • How to use contrast filters (low and high)
  • Understand how to load and unload negative
  • Know how to use darkroom paper easel
  • Know how to use darkroom negative carrier
  • Understand how and why to make a test strip

WHAT YOU TURN IN

3 - Test Prints (contrast 0, 2, 5)

1 - Excellent Print (contrast of your choice) 

TOTAL POINTS

20

MATERIALS

Processed Negatives (in sleeves)

Photo Paper (RCVC)

THIS TECHNIQUE WILL RESULT IN:

LOSS OF SHADOW DETAIL
INCREASED FILM-GRAIN
INCREASED FILM CONTRAST

MATERIALS

Suggested FILM:        Kodak TMAX 400
            Kodak Tri-X 400

Exposed Film (push-processed
FBVC Paper

PHOTOGRAPHERS TO CHECK OUT

William Klien        Bill Brandt
Eikoh Hosoe        Larry Clark

WHAT IS PUSH-PROCESSING?
Push-processing is a technique, used during film development, to compensate for underexposure.  By over developing your film, you can increase the density of your exposure in the mid-tones and highlights on your exposure.  “Pushing” your film will give you more contrast in your negative. 

SETTING YOUR CAMERA
This process starts with your camera, you will intentionally set your camera ISO to a higher value.  This does not change the sensitivity of the film, by exposing with a higher ISO, you will UNDER EXPOSE YOUR NEGATIVES.  When you’re ready to develop your film, you will give it more developing time to compensate for the under exposure in the camera.  

FIGURING OUT YOUR DEVELOPING TIME
The amount of stops you choose to push, will effect the contrast of your film.  The more stops you use, the more contrast your images will be.  Increasing the amount of stops will also diminish the amount of mid-tones in your negatives.  The developing time needs to be increased, according to the stop amount.

                    over-developing time    
    
        pushed 1-stop            25%            
        pushed 2-stops            50%            


        Kodak TMAX 400 + ISO setting 800 = PUSHING 1 STOP
        1. Developer D-76 (1:1)
        2. Temperature 68º
        3. Developing Time: 12½ min.
        4. Push-processing Time: 12½ + 3 = 15½ (15 min. 30 sec.)

        Kodak TMAX 400 + ISO setting 1600 = PUSHING 2 STOPS
        1. Developer D-76 (1:1)
        2. Temperature 68º
        3. Developing Time: 12½ min.
        4. Push-processing Time: 12½ + 6¼ = 18¾ (18 min. 45 sec.)

        USE STOP BATH AND FIXER AS USUAL.

RESULTS: WHAT YOU SHOULD SEE
Push-processing increases the grain and contrast of film.  These images will most likely not produce a full-scale print because the mid-tones will not be as strong.  Use this technique to intentionally produce high-contrast images or to purposely increase the amount of film grain in your image.

 
 

PHOTOGRAM ARTISTS

 

STUDENT WORK

 
 

EXERCISES

2:1 CONTACT SHEET

2:2 PUSH PROCESSING

2:3 SPLIT FILTER

PROJECT

2: UNDOCUMENTED